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Presentation Transcript PowerPoint Presentation : UnemploymentWho is unemployed? : Who is unemployed? Anyone who is at least 16 years of age and is actively seeking employment © 1999 South-Western College PublishingWho makes up the Labor Force? : Who makes up the Labor Force? All non-institutionalized people 16 years of age and older who are either working or actively looking for work © 1999 South-Western College PublishingWhat is the Unemployment rate? : What is the Unemployment rate? The number of unemployed people expressed as a percentage of the labor force Unemployment rate = Unemployed/ Unemployed + EmployedPowerPoint Presentation : Breakdown of the US Population and the Labor Force : Breakdown of the US Population and the Labor Force Survey on Unemployment : Survey on Unemployment BLS calls 60,000 households every month.

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Did you look for work during the last month? agency, resume, interview A “yes” counts you as part of the LF .

” The labor force consists of the employed and unemployed . PowerPoint Presentation : What are some of the problems in measuring unemployment? : What are some of the problems in measuring unemployment? Discouraged worker problem Part time workers Dishonest workersWho is a Discouraged Worker? : Who is a Discouraged Worker? A person who drops out of the work force because he or she cannot find a job © 1999 South-Western College PublishingAre Discouraged Workers counted in the labor force? : Are Discouraged Workers counted in the labor force? No! People who have quit looking for work are not counted as part of the labor force © 1999 South-Western College PublishingWhat about part-time workers? : What about part-time workers? Part time workers are counted as fully employed Whether you work one hour a week, or 80 the govt counts you as employed.

Example – is unemployment in the economy going down because the new jobs being created are part-time, low skilled jobs, or are they full-time, high skill jobs? The quality of your economy depends on the answer to that questionCan the unemployment rate increase without anyone losing a job? : Can the unemployment rate increase without anyone losing a job? If more people enter the work force than the number of new jobs generated, the unemployment rate increases © 1999 South-Western College PublishingPowerPoint Presentation : What are different types of unemployment? : What are different types of unemployment? Frictional Structural Cyclical Seasonal © 1999 South-Western College PublishingThree Types of Unemployment : Three Types of Unemployment Frictional – “temporary”, “transitional”, “short-term.

” (“between jobs” or “search” unemployment ) Examples: People who get “fired” or “quit” to look for a better one. “Graduates” from high school or college who are looking for a job. “Seasonal” or weather-dependent jobs such as “agricultural” , “construction” , “retail” , or “tourism” . lifeguards, resort workers, Santas, & migrant workers.

Frictional unemployment signals that “new jobs” are available and reflects “freedom of choice”. These are qualified workers “transferable” skills.

Structural Unemployment Structural – “technological” or “long term”. There are basic changes in the “structure” of the labor force which make certain “skills obsolete” .

Farm machinery reduced the need for farm laborers.

“Creative destruction” means as jobs are created, other jobs are lost. Frictional and Structural make up the “natural rate of unemployment”. ” “Non-transferable skills” – choice is prolonged unemployment or retraining. C yclical U nemployment Cyclical – “ economic downturns” in the business cycle .

“Cyclical fluctuations” caused by “deficient AD” “Durable goods jobs” are impacted the most. T hese can be postponed because they can be repaired .

” Cyclical Unemployment : Cyclical Unemployment “These jobs do come back. gets laid off producing autos, he says,Top Paying College Majors for 2006 : Chemical Engineering $56,500 Electrical/Electronics Eng.

Unemployment - pdst

Psychology $27,000 Top Paying College Majors for 2006 Econ, EconPowerPoint Presentation : PowerPoint Presentation : SeasonalIs it possible to have a 0% unemployment rate? : Is it possible to have a 0% unemployment rate? Not likely.

At any one time, the economy could not absorb ALL the people who wanted a job. The best we could hope for is that there be no cyclical unemployment from the ups and downs of the economy. There will always be some level of Frictional and Structural Unemployment.

This is called: The Natural Rate of UnemploymentGraph—Natural Rate of Unemployment : Graph—Natural Rate of UnemploymentWhat is the natural rate of unemployment? : What is the natural rate of unemployment? The sum of frictional and structural unemploymentWhat is considered Full Employment? : What is considered Full Employment? An employment level at which the actual rate of unemployment is equal to the natural rate of unemployment If the economy can get to this definition of Full-employment it is doing the best that it can!!! © 1999 South-Western College PublishingPowerPoint Presentation : What is considered to be the natural rate of unemployment? : What is considered to be the natural rate of unemployment? The natural rate varies, most estimates are from 4-6% © 1999 South-Western College PublishingCurrent Unemployment Rate : Current Unemployment Rate The current unemployment rate in the U. Is this good, bad, or just about right?What is considered to be the natural rate of unemployment? : What is considered to be the natural rate of unemployment? The natural rate varies, most estimates are from 4-6% © 1999 South-Western College PublishingPowerPoint Presentation : Frequency Annual Quarterly Time 2004 2005 2006 2006 2007 Q3-2006 Q4-2006 Q1-2007 Country Australia i 5. Why do some other major economies have persistently higher unemployment rates than the U.

: Why do some other major economies have persistently higher unemployment rates than the U.

Government policies are a major culpritPowerPoint Presentation : Unemployment Theories - Costs of Unemployment - Who pays? Perhaps the main cost of unemployment is a personal one to those who are unemployed.

However, if they suffer then the whole economy suffers. Individuals may become dispirited by unemployment, they may lose their self-esteem and confidence.

The longer they are unemployed the more they may lose their skills and this has to be bad for the economy as well.

On top of that these problems (and financial ones) often lead to the unemployed being less healthy, and then the NHS picks up the bill. The whole economy suffers from people being unemployed.

As well as these microeconomic effects, there will also be macro effects. These will include: Loss of output to the economy - the unemployed could be producing goods and services and if they aren't, then GDP is lower than it could be.

Loss of tax revenue - unemployed people aren't earning and they therefore aren't paying tax. Increase in government expenditure - the government has to pay out benefits to support the unemployed. Along with the loss of tax this is a 'double whammy'.

Loss of profits - with higher employment firms are likely to do better and make better profits. If they make less profit because of unemployment, they may have less funds to invest.